Botanical name Citrus bergamia Risso & Poit
Synonyms Rectified bergamot, furanocoumarin-free bergamot.
Botanical synonym: Citrus aurantium subsp. bergamia Risso & Poit.
Source Fruit peel
Description / Color / Consistency: A thin, light yellowish green to yellowish brown liquid.
Aromatic Summary / Note / Strength of Aroma The aroma is basically citrus, yet fruity and sweet with a warm spicy floral quality, and is reminiscent of Neroli, giving a middle note of medium strength.
Blends With Black Pepper, Clary Sage, Cypress, Frankincense, Geranium, Jasmine, Mandarin, Nutmeg, Orange, Rosemary, SandalWood, Vetiver and Ylang-Ylang
The Bergamot tree can grow up to four meters high, with star-shaped flowers, and smooth leaves, bearing citrus fruit resembling a cross between an orange and a grapefruit but in a pear-shape. The fruit ripens from green to yellow. The name Bergamot is derived from the city Bergamo in Lombardy where the oil was first sold.
Citrus bergamot is commercially grown in southern Calabria, southern Italy. It is also grown in southern France and in Côte d'Ivoire for the essential oil and in Antalya in southern Turkey for its marmalade.The fruit is not generally grown for juice consumption.However, in Mauritius where it is grown on small-scale basis, it is largely used for juice consumption by the locals.
Bergamot oil must be protected from sunlight, because of bergaptene, one of its components becomes poisonous if exposed to sunlight. That is why the oil should always be stored in dark bottles and dark places. Exposure to sunlight should even be avoided after it is applied or rubbed onto the skin, at least until it gets absorbed into your skin.
Linalyl acetate 18.0–28.0%
Hazards None known.
Cautions Old or oxidized oils should be avoided.
Our safety advice
Because of its limonene content, oxidation of rectified bergamot oil should be avoided by storage in a dark, airtight container in a refrigerator. The addition of an antioxidant to preparations
containing it is recommended.
Regulatory guidelines IFRA recommends that essential oils rich in limonene should only be used when the level of peroxides is kept to the lowest practical level, for instance by adding antioxidants at the time of production. In Europe, essential oils containing furanocoumarins must be used so that the total level of bergapten will not exceed: (a) 15 ppm in finished cosmetic products intended for application to skin areas likely to be exposed to sunshine, excluding rinse-off products; or (b) 1 ppm in sun protection and in bronzing products. In the presence of other phototoxic ingredients, the sum of their concentrations shall not exceed 100%.
Adverse skin reactions Undiluted rectified bergamot oil was mildly irritating to rabbits. Tested at 30% on 25 volunteers it was not sensitizing. Rectified bergamot oil was non-phototoxic. Autoxidation products of (þ)- limonene can cause skin sensitization.
Reproductive toxicity The low developmental toxicity of (þ)- limonene and linalool. suggests that rectified bergamot oil is not hazardous in pregnancy.
Acute toxicity Rectified bergamot oil acute oral LD50 in rats >10 g/kg; acute dermal LD50 in rabbits >20 g/kg.
Carcinogenic anticarcinogenic potential: No information found for rectified bergamot oil. Expressed bergamot oil is not mutagenic. (þ)-Limonene displays anticarcinogenic activity.
To comply with the SCCNFP regulation, it would be safe to use bergamot (FCF) at up to 16.6%. The odor of bergamot FCF is inferior to that of the untreated, cold-pressed oil, but it is not phototoxic or photocarcinogenic. Bergamot (FCF) is more effective against Candida species than natural, expressed bergamot oil.