Botanical name Syzygium aromaticum L.
Botanical synonym Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb., Eugenia aromatica L.
Processing Method Steam Distilled
Color/Consistency A clear pale yellow to yellow liquid of medium consistency.
Aromatic Summary / Note / Strength of Aroma A middle note of medium aroma, Clove Bud Essential Oil smells like the actual spice.
Blends With Blends well with other spice oils including Cinnamon Bar, Nutmeg, Citronella, Grapefruit, Lemon, Orange, Peppermint, Rosemary and Rose.
Indigenous to Indonesia and Madagascar, cloves can be found in nature as the unopened pink flower buds of the evergreen tree.
Picked by hand the buds and flowewrs are dried until they turn brown and, after grinding them, the powder is used in cooking or converted into an essential oil for various medicinal purposes.
Unlike most other spices, cloves can be grown throughout the entire year, which has given native tribes that use it a distinct advantage over other cultures because the health benefits can be enjoyed more readily.
Archeologists have found cloves in a ceramic vessel in Syria, with evidence that dates the find to within a few years of 1721 BC. In the third century BC, a Chinese leader in the Han Dynasty required those who addressed him to chew cloves to freshen their breath. Cloves were traded by Muslim sailors and merchants during the Middle Ages in the profitable Indian Ocean trade, the clove trade is also mentioned by Ibn Battula and even famous Arabian Nights characters such as Sinbad the Sailor are known to have bought and sold cloves from India.
Essential oil from clove buds and flowers with CO2 was explored. The effect of different parameters, such as temperature pressure and particle size on the extraction yield and the content of eugenol in extracts was investigated using three-level orthogonal array design. The experimental results show that the temperature has the largest effect on the eugenol content of the extracts, and particle size has the maximum effect on the oil yield.
Clove oil is often added in cosmetic creams and lotions, and it is commonly known as a good massage oil that provides relief from pain and stress.
Eugenyl acetate tr
Quality May be adulterated with clove stem oil.
Hazards Drug interaction may inhibit blood clotting; embryotoxicity; skin sensitization; mucous membrane irritation.
Cautions (oral) May interact with pethidine, MAOIs or SSRIs. Anticoagulant medication, major surgery, peptic ulcer, hemophilia, other bleeding disorders.
Cautions (dermal) Hypersensitive, diseased or damaged skin, children under 2 years of age. Maximum dermal use level: 0.6%.
Our safety advice
We recommend a dermal maximum of 0.6% based on 88% eugenol content and a limit of 0.5%. As with the essential oil no restrictions are required, in our opinion, with regard to carcinogenesis.
IFRA recommends a maximum dermal use level for eugenol of 0.5% for most product types, in order to avoid skin sensitization.
Adverse skin reactions In a mouse local lymph node assay, which allows comparative measuring of skin sensitizing potency, clove leaf oil was a weak sensitizer, with a similar potency to eugenol. Undiluted clove leaf oil was markedly irritating to rabbits, and was irritating to both mice and pigs; tested at 5% on 25 volunteers it was neither irritating nor sensitizing. Clove leaf oil was is non-phototoxic. From a total of 11,632 patch tests on eugenol, consumer products containing eugenol, or on clove leaf oil, one instance of induced hypersensitivity at 0.05%, and one instance of pre-existing sensitization at 0.09% were observed. See clove bud profile for data on adverse skin reactions to clove oil.
Cardiovascular effects Eugenol is a powerful inhibitor of platelet aggregation, an essential step in the blood clotting cascade.
The most commonly used type of clove oil is clove bud.