Botanical name Citrus sinensis
Source Fruit peel
Processing Method Cold Pressed, then steam distilled
Color/Consistency A thin, dark orange to golden brown liquid.
Aromatic Summary / Note / Strength of Aroma A middle note with a medium aroma, Orange Five Fold has a sweet, citrus smell like the orange peels from which it is derived, but more intense and concentrated.
Blend wit Clove Bud, Cinnamon Bark, Nutmeg, Sandalwood, Myrrh, Clary Sage, Lemon, Bergamot, Lavender.
Oranges, which are high in vitamins A and C and potassium, are eaten fresh or processed into juice, which can be consumed directly or further processed into concentrate, both used in numerous soda and cocktail drinks, punches, orangeades, and liqueurs (although many orange liqueurs are made from sour, rather than sweet, oranges, or from a combination). Orange fruits and peels are used in numerous desserts, jams and marmalades, candied peels, as well as cookies, cakes, and candies. Oil derived from orange peels, as well as flowers, leaves, and twigs is used as an essential oil in perfumes
Sweet oranges were mentioned in Chinese literature in 314 BC. As of 1987, orange trees were found to be the most cultivated fruit tree in the world. Orange trees are widely grown in tropical and subtropical climates for their sweet fruit. The fruit of the orange tree can be eaten fresh, or processed for its juice or fragrant peel. As of 2012, sweet oranges accounted for approximately 70% of citrus production.
This essential oil is obtained from the peels of orange by cold compression. Although most of you know the common name of oranges, you may not know the botanical name, Citrus sinensis. The liquid that comes in packets inside orange-flavored soft drink concentrate is sometimes composed of this oil. The main components of this oil are alpha-pinene, citronellal, geranial, sabinene, myrcene, limonene, linalool, and neral.
Orange essential oil displays photo-toxicity. It tastes bitter and if ingested in large quantities, it may result in vomiting, nausea, and loss of appetite.
Linalool 0.1 – 3.0%
Neral 0.01 – 2.01%
Quality Sweet orange oil may be adulterated with natural or synthetic limonene, or with mixtures of terpene hydrocarbons, though adulteration of this inexpensive oil is not common.
Hazards Skin sensitization if oxidized.
Cautions Old or oxidized oils should be avoided.
Our safety advice
Because of its (þ)-limonene content we recommend that oxidation of sweet orange oil is avoided by storage in a dark, airtight container in a refrigerator. The addition of an antioxidant to preparations containing it is recommended.
Has GRAS status. IFR recommends that essential oils rich in limonene should only be used when the level of peroxides is kept to the lowest practical level, for instance by adding antioxidants at the time of production.
Adverse skin reactions Undiluted expressed sweet orange oil was moderately irritating to rabbits, but was not irritating to mice. Tested at 8% or 100% on two panels of 25 volunteers it was not irritating. Tested at 8% on 25 volunteers it was not sensitizing. Sweet orange oil is non-phototoxic and no bergapten was detected in five samples from different types of C. sinensis. There were no irritant or allergic reactions in a group of 100 consecutive dermatitis patients tested with 5% Brazilian orange oil. In a study of 200 consecutive dermatitis patients, one was sensitive to 2% sweet orange oil on patch testing. One out of 747 dermatitis patients suspected of fragrance allergy reacted to 2%orange oil. In a multicenter study, Germany’s IVDK reported that 13 of 6,246 dermatitis patients suspected of fragrance allergy testedpositive to 2% sweet orange oil. There were no þþ or þþþ reactions. This suggests that orange oil is non-allergenic. Autoxidation products of (þ)-limonene can cause skin sensitization. A 65-year-old aromatherapist with multiple essential oil sensitivities reacted to 5%, but not 1% orange oil.
Reproductive toxicity Female rats were given gavage doses of 375, 750 or 1,500 mg/kg/day sweet orange oil in corn oil, for one week before cohabitation, all through gestation, and for four days post-delivery. Adverse effects consisted of reduced food consumption and reduced weight gain in the 750 and 1,500 mg/kg groups during the pre-mating period, and a significant increase in stillbirths and pup deaths in the high-dose group. No adverse effects on mating performance or fertility were seen in any group. The NOAEL values for maternal and fetal toxicity were 375 and 750 mg/kg, respectively. Therefore, sweet orange oil is not hazardous in pregnancy.
Acute toxicity Non-toxic. Sweet orange acute oral LD50 in rats >5 g/kg; acute dermal LD50 in rabbits >5 g/kg. Carcinogenic/anticarcinogenic potential Apoptosis in human leukemia cells was induced by sweet orange oil and by citral (geranialþneral), octanal and decanal, all minor constituents of the oil. Also see bitter orange (above). (þ)-Limonene displays anticarcinogenic activity.
The blood orange, Citrus sinensis L. cv. Sanguinelli and Citrus sinensis L. cv. Moro, is a variety of sweet orange. Orange is produced in greater quantity than any other essential oil, and most of this production is used in foods and beverages.