Dill Seed Essential Oil (Anethum sowa)

Dill Seed Essential Oil
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Botanical name Anethum sowa Roxb. ex Flem.

Botanical synonyms Sowa, East Indian dill, satapashpi

Family Apiaceae

Source   Seeds

Origin  India

Processing Method   Steam Distillation

Color/Consistency A thin, clear, pale yellow liquid that darkens over time.

Aromatic Summary / Note / Strength of Aroma  Dill Seed Essential Oil has a fresh, herbaceous scent that is gentle, warm and spicy.

Blends With Dill Seed works well with other spice oils, Elemi, Peppermint, and Caraway.

Product Abstract

Dill, scientifically known as Anethum graveolens, has been used of culinary and medicinal purposes for hundreds of years. Both the seeds and the leaves can be used. Apart from giving a strong, tangy, appetizing flavor and taste, it has many medicinal properties, which mainly come from certain compounds called Monoterpenes, as well as flavonoids, minerals and certain amino acids.

Dill can be a perennial or annual herb, depending on where it is cultivated in the world. This herb is used in almost every continent to different extents. It can be used dry as a topping for a number of meals, but it is also used as an ingredient in many meals. For those herbalists that want to grow their own dill, it is important to cultivate this herb in warm to hot summers, with plenty of sunshine.


In Anglo-Saxon England, as prescribed inI dill was used in many traditional medicines, including those against jaundice, headache, boils, lack of appetite, stomach problems, nausea, liver problems, and many other ills. Dill seeds can also be used to prepare herbal tea.

Harvesting/Extraction Information

We have optimized the process conditions of extractionutilizing SFE and hydrodistillation. After extraction, the dill oil was thoroughly examined for its quality by determination of itsconstituents with gas chromatography. The particle size of thegrounded dill seed was also considered to play an important role,as

?ne powder allows air channelling to take place by both SFEand conventional techniques. Air channelling reduces the e

?-ciency of the extraction process and reduces the yield. Coloringcompoundsarerequiredtobepresentinextractedoil,butthedilloil recovered using conventional techniques is usually colorless.Hence, investigation of the SC-CO2process for extracting dill oil was considered

Common Usage

  • Promotes Digestion
  • Prevents Insomnia
  • Maintains Bone Health
  • Manages Diabetes
  • Prevents Excess Gas
  • Boosts Immunity
  • Calms Hiccups
  • Cures Diarrhea
  • Treats Dysentery
  • Relieves Arthritis Pain
  • Stimulates Menstruation
  • Treats Respiratory Disorders
  • Oral Care
  • Prevents Cancer


Dilute before use; for external use only. May cause skin irritation in some individuals; a skin test is recommended prior to use. Contact with eyes should be avoided.

Key constituents

Dill apiole 20.7–52.5%

(þ)-Limonene 5.9–45.0%

(þ)-Carvone 17.4–23.1%

(E)-Dihydrocarvone 4.2–16.6%

a-Phellandrene  tr–6.5%

(Z)-Dihydrocarvone  0.8–5.2%

Safety summary
Hazards  Hepatotoxicity; nephrotoxicity; may be abortifacient.
Contraindications (all routes)  Pregnancy, breastfeeding.
Maximum adult daily oral dose  53 mg.
Maximum dermal use level  1.4%.

Our safety advice
We have proposed a daily oral maximum for parsley apiole of 0.4 mg/kg. Because of its structural similarity, dill apiole is
likely to present a similar risk. We therefore recommend oral and dermal restrictions of 53 mg and 1.4% for Indian dill seed
oil, based on a 52.5% dill apiole with apiole limits of 0.4 mg/kg and 0.76%. Our oral maximum dose of 12.5 mg/kg/day for (þ)-carvone can be ignored here since carvone is much less toxic.

Regulatory guidelines
The Council of Europe (1992) has set an ADI of 1 mg/kg for carvone. This is equivalent to an adult daily dose of 280–375 mg of Indian dill seed oil, depending on carvone content.

Organ-specific effects
Adverse skin reactions  Undiluted Indian dill seed oil was moderately irritating to rabbits, but was not irritating to mice or pigs; tested at 4% on 25 volunteers it was neither irritating nor sensitizing. It is non-phototoxic (Opdyke 1982 p. 673–674).

Reproductive toxicity  Apiole and various preparations of parsley have been used for many years to procure illegal abortion in
Italy. Post-abortive vaginal bleeding, sometimes profuse, is a feature of these cases. A cumulative effect is apparent, parsley
apiole being taken daily for between two and eight days before either death or abortion ensued. The lowest daily dose of apiole
which induced abortion was 0.9 g taken for eight consecutive days.

Systemic effects
Acute toxicity  Indian dill seed oil acute oral LD50 in rats 4.6 g/kg, in mice >3 g/kg; acute dermal LD50 in rabbits >5 g/ kg. Parsley apiole is toxic in humans; the lowest total dose of apiole causing death is 4.2 g  the lowest fatal daily dose is 770 mg,
which was taken for 14 days; the lowest single fatal dose is 8 g. At least 19 g has been survived.

Carcinogenic/anticarcinogenic potential No information!  found for Indian dill seed oil. A very low level of genotoxicity
has been reported for dill apiole. However, neither dill apiole nor carvone is carcinogenic, and (þ)-limonene displays  anticarcinogenic activity. Essential oil of Piper aduncum, containing 45.9% dill apiole, was not mutagenic in S. typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100, with or without S9.

Essential oils high in parsley apiole present a high risk of abortion if taken in oral doses, and external use also seems inadvisable in pregnancy. Indian dill seed oil should not be confused with European dill seed oil (Anethum graveolens) which contains a
maximum of 1% apiole, and is not toxic.


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